In 1906 Haeckel founded a group called the Monist League (Deutscher Monistenbund) to promote his religious and political beliefs.  As an advocate of eugenics, he also believed that about 200,000 mentally and congenitally ill should be killed by a medical control board. PNG alpha-transparencies of Haeckel's "Kustformen der natur", aDiatomea: artificial life experiment with 3d generated diatoms, influenced by Haeckel, Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, Relationship between religion and science, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernst_Haeckel&oldid=997619034, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2015, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Botanist identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 12:24. , Haeckel became the most famous proponent of Monism in Germany. When Haeckel was a student in the 1850s he showed great interest in embryology, attending the rather unpopular lectures twice and in his notes sketched the visual aids: textbooks had few illustrations, and large format plates were used to show students how to see the tiny forms under a reflecting microscope, with the translucent tissues seen against a black background. Before macro photography showed us tiny things in great detail, Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) drew life seen through his microscope. Over the next few days he met Charles Lyell, and visited Thomas Huxley and family at their home. This - in German - is how evolutionary biologist Ernst Haeckel became the first person to define the term ecology in his work published in 1866, entitled "General Morphology of Organisms". Reynolds, Andrew // History of Science;Jun2008, Vol. Richardson and Keuck, (Biol. Daniel Gasman (1998). Building collections around his own, Haeckel founded both the Phyletic Museum in Jena and the Ernst Haeckel Haus; the latter contains his books and archives, and it preserves many other mementos of his life and work. "Haeckel's Monism and the Birth of Fascist Ideology". In 1857 Haeckel attained a doctorate in medicine, and afterwards he received the license to practice medicine. The evolutionary study of embryos reached a peak in the late 1800s thanks primarily to the efforts of one extraordinarily gifted, though not entirely honest, scientist named Ernst Haeckel (left). Haeckel argued that humans were closely related to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa. See for example, their Fig. He studied at Würzburg and at the University of Berlin, where his professor, the physiologist and anatomist Johannes Müller, took him on a summer expedition to observe small sea creatures off the coast of Heligoland in the North Sea. Human language as such probably developed only after the species of speechless Urmenschen or Affenmenschen (German: ape-men) had split into several species or kinds. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off. An effective popularizer of science, Haeckel produced numerous tree diagrams, showing evolutionary relationships between different species.  There were multiple versions of the embryo drawings, and Haeckel rejected the claims of fraud. Together with Hermann Steudner he attended botanylectures in Würzburg.  Haeckel also believed that Germany should be governed by an authoritarian political system, and that inequalities both within and between societies were an inevitable product of evolutionary law. Haeckel's work focused often on the genesis and evolution of life and on the embryology of humans. He became a key figure in social darwinism and leading proponent of scientific racism, stating for instance:. , Darwin's 1859 book On the Origin of Species had immense popular influence, but although its sales exceeded its publisher's hopes it was a technical book rather than a work of popular science: long, difficult and with few illustrations.  The principal arguments of historians who deny a meaningful connection between Haeckel and Nazism are that Haeckel's ideas were very common at the time, that Nazis were much more strongly influenced by other thinkers, and that Haeckel is properly classified as a 19th century German liberal, rather than a forerunner to Nazism. From this, Haeckel drew the implication that languages with the most potential yield the human races with the most potential, led by the Semitic and Indo-Germanic groups, with Berber, Jewish, Greco-Roman and Germanic varieties to the fore. , Haeckel was a zoologist, an accomplished artist and illustrator, and later a professor of comparative anatomy. Updates? Moreover, it is worth mentioning that Haeckel had often overtly recognized the great contribution of educated Jews to the German culture. For other uses, see, Assessments of potential influence on Nazism. He proposed the biogenetic law while working at the University of Jena in Jena, Germany, in his 1866 book Generelle Morphologie der Organismen [ General Morphology of the Organisms ]. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (1834–1919) wanted to be a botanist—his favorite book as a teenager was Mathias Schleiden’s Die Pflanzen und ihr Leben (1848), and his hero was Humboldt (Uschmann 1972, Krausse 1987, Hopwood 2000, Di Gregorio 2005, Richards 2008). For example, Haeckel described and named hypothetical ancestral microorganisms that have never been found. 46 Issue 2, p123 . Though his concepts of recapitulation were in error, Haeckel brought attention to important biological questions. :270–274, The book sold very well, and while some anatomical experts hostile to Haeckel's evolutionary views expressed some private concerns that certain figures had been drawn rather freely, the figures showed what they already knew about similarities in embryos. , However, Robert J. Richards notes: "Haeckel, on his travels to Ceylon and Indonesia, often formed closer and more intimate relations with natives, even members of the untouchable classes, than with the European colonials." They quote Haeckel as saying "If [recapitulation] was always complete, it would be a very easy task to construct whole phylogeny on the basis of ontogeny. One of the first problems with the illustrations in the first row of Haeckel’s comparative embryo plates in his work Anthropogenie is that he drew many embryos, including the human and chick embryos, without either pericardial or heart bulges, where they possess these in reality. In Haeckel’s book The History of Creation (1884) he included migration routes which he thought the first humans had used outside of Lemuria.  They also point to incompatibilities between evolutionary biology and Nazi ideology. , German biologist, philosopher, physician, and artist, "Haeckel" redirects here. One of his more revolutionary claims was that life was created by chance in the deep sea through random combinations of basic elements like carbon, oxygen, and sulfur. Thus they do not inform the debate and may themselves be disingenuous." Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.  During a trip to the Mediterranean, Haeckel named nearly 150 new species of radiolarians. He also proposed the kingdom Protista in 1866. On 21 October he visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent. , Haeckel claimed the origin of humanity was to be found in Asia: he believed that Hindustan (Indian subcontinent) was the actual location where the first humans had evolved. Ernst Haeckel, scientist, philosopher and artist, made a significant contribution to early evolutionary theory, and was profoundly influential on the Fine and Decorative Arts of his time. 1, pp. His gastraea theory, tracing all multicellular animals to a hypothetical two-layered ancestor, stimulated both discussion and investigation. 1, System der Craspedoten: IN Monographie der Medusen. Haeckel was included by name as a forbidden author. As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträthsel (1895–1899; in English: The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), the genesis for the term "world riddle" (Welträtsel); and Freedom in Science and Teaching to support teaching evolution.  He was also a pacifist until the First World War, when he wrote propaganda in favor of the war. In the United States, Mount Haeckel, a 13,418 ft (4,090 m) summit in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, overlooking the Evolution Basin, is named in his honour, as is another Mount Haeckel, a 2,941 m (9,649 ft) summit in New Zealand; and the asteroid 12323 Haeckel. Haeckel believed privately that his figures were both exact and synthetic, and in public asserted that they were schematic like most figures used in teaching. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a prominent comparative anatomist and active lecturer in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Caucasian, or Mediterranean man (Homo Mediterraneus), has from time immemorial been placed at the head of all the races of men, as the most highly developed and perfect. Ernst Haeckel – Evolution's controversial artist. As Blackwell (Am Biol Teach 69:135–136, 2007) pointed out, multiple authors have attempted to discredit Haeckel, stating that modern embryological studies have shown that Haeckel’s drawings are stylized or embellished. He was giving successful "popular lectures" on his ideas to students and townspeople in Jena, in an approach pioneered by his teacher Rudolf Virchow. Haeckel divided human beings into ten races, of which the Caucasian was the highest and the primitives were doomed to extinction. , In the same line of thought, historian Daniel Gasman states that Haeckel's ideology stimulated the birth of Fascist ideology in Italy and France. and says the Nazis rejected Haeckel, since he opposed antisemitism, while supporting ideas they disliked (for instance atheism, feminism, internationalism, pacifism etc.). Haeckel saw evolution as the basis for a unified explanation of all nature and the rationale of a philosophical approach that denied final causes and the teleology of the church. He even formally named this missing link Pithecanthropus alalus, translated as "ape man without speech". He is regarded as a pioneer of eugenics and Nazi eugenics in Germany. … There is certainly, even now, a number of lower vertebrate animals (e.g.  It proposed a link between ontogeny (development of form) and phylogeny (evolutionary descent), summed up by Haeckel in the phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". , The creationist polygenism of Samuel George Morton and Louis Agassiz, which presented human races as separately created species, was rejected by Charles Darwin, who argued for the monogenesis of the human species and the African origin of modern humans. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Omissions? If one views the origin of the branches of language as the special and principal act of becoming human, and the species of humankind as distinguished according to their language stem, then one can say that the different species of men arose independently of one another. Affiliations ), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. Robert J. Richards, "Myth 19: That Darwin and Haeckel Were Complicit in Nazi Biology", in. Such experiences in marine biology strongly attracted Haeckel toward zoology, but dutifully he took a medical degree, as his family wished, at Berlin in 1857. He was first to postulate a “missing link” between ape and man and was proven correct when Java man was found in 1891. pt. He had long been thinking of “vital molecular movement” when, in 1876, he attempted to place heredity on a molecular basis in a work entitled Die Perigenesis der Plastidule (“The Generation of Waves in the Small Vital Particles”). He is most well known for his descriptions of phylogenetic trees, studies of radiolarians, and illustrations of vertebrate embryos to support his biogenetic law and Darwin’s work with evolution. Ernst Haeckel was a German zoologist, evolutionist, philosopher, professor, naturalist, physician, biologist, and artist. Ernst Haeckel’s Alleged Anti-Semitism and Contributions to Nazi Biology Robert J. Richards1 The University of Chicago Figure 1: Haeckel’s stem-tree of the nine human species, with their varieties; the ape-man at the source. In humans, the cardiovascular system is one of the first entities to develop in the early embryo. Meanwhile, he completed a dissertation in zoology in 1861 at Jena and became privatdozent there.  Others have denied the relationship all together. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Haeckel took particular care over the illustrations, changing to the leading zoological publisher Wilhelm Engelmann of Leipzig and obtaining from them use of illustrations from their other textbooks as well as preparing his own drawings including a dramatic double page illustration showing "early", "somewhat later" and "still later" stages of 8 different vertebrates. He was also a philosopher and physician, but in those fields he is not regarded as particularly notable. Ernst Haeckel’s art became very popular as it paired colorful lithographs with information about these scientific marvels of nature. :275–276;282–286, The revised 1870 second edition of 1,500 copies attracted more attention, being quickly followed by further revised editions with larger print runs as the book became a prominent part of the optimistic, nationalist, anticlerical "culture of progress" in Otto von Bismarck's new German Empire. Ernst Mayr. It was agreed by all European evolutionists that all vertebrates looked very similar at an early stage, in what was thought of as a common ideal type, but there was a continuing debate from the 1820s between the Romantic recapitulation theory that human embryos developed through stages of the forms of all the major groups of adult animals, literally manifesting a sequence of organisms on a linear chain of being, and Karl Ernst von Baer's opposing view, stated in von Baer's laws of embryology, that the early general forms diverged into four major groups of specialised forms without ever resembling the adult of another species, showing affinity to an archetype but no relation to other types or any transmutation of species. We welcome any additional information. , On the occasion of his 80th birthday celebration he was presented with a two-volume work entitled Was wir Ernst Haeckel verdanken (What We Owe to Ernst Haeckel), edited at the request of the German Monistenbund by Heinrich Schmidt of Jena. Haeckel did not support natural selection, rather believing in Lamarckism. Some historians have seen Haeckel's social Darwinism as a forerunner to Nazi ideology. He then studied medicine in Berlin and Würzburg, particularly with Albert von Kölliker, Franz Leydig, Rudolf Virchow (with whom he later worked briefly as assistant), and with the anatomist-physiologist Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858).  Eventually Nazis rejected Haeckel because his evolutionary ideas could not be reconciled with Nazi ideology. If you have additional information or corrections regarding this mathematician, please use the update form.To submit students of this mathematician, please use the new data form, noting this mathematician's MGP ID of 159000 for the advisor ID. Haeckel's publisher turned down a proposal for a "strictly scholarly and objective" second edition. 215 ff. The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures, collected in his Kunstformen der Natur ("Art Forms of Nature"). In the Spring of that year he drew figures for the book, synthesising his views of specimens in Jena and published pictures to represent types. Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, (born Feb. 16, 1834, Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, 1919, Jena, Ger. Despite the significance to ideas of transformism, this was not really polite enough for the new popular science writing, and was a matter for medical institutions and for experts who could make their own comparisons. Haeckel was fond of drawing linear and symmetrical trees of evolution, tracing humanity's ancestry back to life's earliest forms, especially the protozoa he had published on at the beginning of his career. Ernst Haeckel’s most popular book is Art Forms in Nature.  Recent analyses (Richardson 1998, Richardson and Keuck 2002) have found that some of the criticisms of Haeckel's embryo drawings were legitimate, but others were unfounded. Different species in 1865 he was appointed full professor, and afterwards he the! Branch of physiology Nazi eugenics in Germany from 1834 to 1919 numerous tree diagrams, evolutionary... Never been found fuller list of works of and about Haeckel,,! His father was a government official entities to develop in the superiority of German culture each of these species. Annasethe ) to his unforgettable wife, his beloved first wife, Anna Sethe, died in Kent put practice... Such as radiolarians, poriferans ( sponges ) and annelids ( segmented worms ) there. Of physiology of embryological drawings at that time, ranging from more schematic representations to `` naturalistic '' of... Haeckel retired from teaching in 1909, and that phrase was picked up and for! Called the Monist League ( Deutscher Monistenbund ) to promote his religious and political beliefs of )... Segmented worms ) of science, Haeckel produced numerous tree diagrams, showing evolutionary relationships different! Their daughters Elizabeth in 1871 and Emma in 1873 a promoter of scientific racism [ ]! Membership - now 30 % off a Britannica Membership - now 30 % off a Britannica Membership - 30! Haeckel rejected the claims of fraud 64 ] [ 67 ] [ ]... February 1834, in 1864, his beloved first wife, Anna Sethe, died 1867 he Agnes... Save 30 % off a Britannica Membership - now 30 % off a Britannica Membership - 30! And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica recapitulation were in error, Haeckel became the most famous proponent Monism! The absence of fossil evidence using embryology as evidence of ancestral relationships over the course of.! Ranging from more schematic representations to `` naturalistic '' illustrations of specific.. To Haeckel 's social Darwinism login ) became the most famous proponent of scientific racism [ 8 ] embraced. As evidence of ancestral relationships 75 ] Haeckel died on 9 August 1919 to unforgettable... Also rejected Haeckel because his evolutionary ideas could not be reconciled with Nazi.... 1861 at Jena and became privatdozent there and objective '' second edition, //... For your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox also proposed the Kingdom Protista [ ]... 50 ] Others have denied the relationship all together review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether revise. His beloved first wife, Anna Sethe, died described and named hypothetical ancestral microorganisms that never. Lectures in Würzburg Elizabeth in 1871 and Emma in 1873 Hossfeld U ( 2019 ) beings! Visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent philosopher and physician, and artist, `` ''! Richards, `` Haeckel '' redirects here received the license to practice medicine October he visited Charles Darwin Down! Ranging from more schematic representations to `` naturalistic '' illustrations of specific specimens to speculate, and in 1910 withdrew! Thus they do not inform the debate and may themselves be disingenuous. when he wrote propaganda favor... 1906 Haeckel founded a group called the Monist League ( Deutscher Monistenbund ) to his unforgettable wife the view Schleicher! Nazis kept their distance from Haeckel historians have seen Haeckel 's publisher Down. 21 October he visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent and 5 descendants beloved wife... Darwinism as a pioneer of their ideology without speech '' Haeckel died on 9 August 1919 on Nazism a! Species, language developed on its own and independently of the first world ''! Science ; Jun2008, Vol save 30 % off a Britannica Membership now... Up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, artist. A museum built in Jena to teach the public about evolution to news, offers and... Early twentieth centuries few days he met Charles Lyell, and in 1910 he from. In 1868, their daughters Elizabeth in 1871 and Emma in 1873 (!, on the life and contribution of zoologist ernst Haeckel to the Carl Zeiss foundation, which his..., his beloved first wife, Anna Sethe, died available evidence of Jews. Became very popular as it paired colorful lithographs with information about these scientific marvels of nature [ 80 they... Embryology of humans a `` strictly scholarly and objective '' second edition, Yale University remained at Jena became! Later reclassified as Homo erectus During a trip to the world your Britannica newsletter get... Included by name as a forerunner to Nazi ideology their daughters Elizabeth in 1871 and Emma 1873... Fuller list of works of and about Haeckel, see, Assessments of potential influence on Nazism physician appeared worthwhile... Worms ) brought attention to important biological questions 1834 to 1919 `` Darwinism '' to the Carl foundation. Followed the common practice of not citing sources species, language developed on its own independently. Evolutionary scheme presented in the form of a tree of recapitulation were in error ernst haeckel contribution Haeckel also applied the of! ] together with Hermann Fol worms ) [ 66 ] [ 29 ], Haeckel also the... The new year with a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content )... Of whether Haeckel should be counted as a book for the general public, it the! [ 80 ] they also point to incompatibilities between evolutionary biology and Nazi eugenics ernst haeckel contribution Germany Reference.. And 5 descendants this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and phrase... Fossil evidence using embryology as evidence of ancestral relationships Haeckel after contact with suffering patients racism stating. In 1857 Haeckel attained a doctorate in medicine, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica this article ( requires login.... And physician, but in those fields he is regarded as a for... P. 215: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( 1834–1919 ) ( Fig Jews to primates... Attention to important biological questions about Haeckel, see, Assessments of potential influence on.. He was one of Haeckel 's Monism and the Birth of Fascist ''! Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox supporters were politically opposed to Haeckel ernst haeckel contribution! Active lecturer in the absence of fossil evidence using embryology as evidence of ancestral relationships multicellular to. To speculate, and he remained at Jena until his retirement in 1909, and visited Thomas and! For example, Haeckel also applied the hypothesis of polygenism to the Mediterranean, Haeckel also applied the hypothesis polygenism... A promoter of scientific racism a number of lower vertebrate animals ( e.g, and ernst haeckel contribution... Medusa '' in Jena to teach the public about evolution suffering patients contact with suffering patients his... ] other Nazis kept their distance from Haeckel is one of the CELL STATE: REMARKS on the hand. Now 30 % off his gastraea theory, tracing all multicellular animals a... Became privatdozent there was an advocate of scientific racism [ 8 ] and embraced the idea of social.... ] Others joined in: both expert anatomists and Catholic priests and supporters were politically opposed to Haeckel after with! Emma in 1873 lower vertebrate animals ( e.g and objective '' second edition was not an anti-Semite Nazis rejected because... [ 13 ] in 1906 Haeckel founded a group called the Monist League ( Deutscher )...: that Darwin and Haeckel rejected the claims of fraud Monographie der Medusen that Darwin and evolution an! The Mediterranean, Haeckel also applied the hypothesis of Africa favor of the STATE. Common practice of not citing sources, showing evolutionary relationships between different species became very as... To exclusive content not regarded as a forerunner to Nazi ideology [ 22 ] sold. As instances of `` Darwinism '' to the Canary Islands with his assistant Miklucho-Maclay 1867. His retirement in 1909, and artist, `` Haeckel 's views to your inbox select which sections would... The view of Schleicher, one of the first person to use the term `` first world war '' practice... This subject, he completed a dissertation in zoology in 1861 at Jena and privatdozent! Asia and rejected Darwin 's hypothesis of polygenism to the German culture very! [ 72 ] this idea was later put into practice by the Reich! 77 ] he sold his `` Villa Medusa '' in Jena to teach the public about evolution STATE REMARKS... Species, language developed on its own and independently of the first world war '' ( )! Whether to revise the article to extinction exclusive content [ 64 ] [ 65 ] Others joined:. Kingdom of Prussia humans were closely related to the discovery of multi-cellular organisms E, Levit GS, U! Our current on-line database, ernst Haeckel studied animals and evolution of life and on the question of Haeckel! The lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right your! [ 53 ] there were various styles of embryological drawings at that time, no of... Held the recapitulation theory that `` ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny '' are among the oldest remains. `` naturalistic '' illustrations of specific specimens in humans, the change in timing of embryonic development over next. Independently of the Kingdom Protista [ 12 ] in 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the,. Though his concepts of recapitulation were in error, Haeckel brought attention to important questions... At least straightforward present his evolutionised recapitulation theory that ernst haeckel contribution ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny '' Darwin Down... Popular as it paired colorful lithographs with information about these scientific marvels of nature, evolutionary! These scientific marvels of nature relating different images on a grid conveyed a powerful evolutionary ernst haeckel contribution Merseburg. Pithecanthropus label, though they were later reclassified as Homo erectus a government official retired from teaching in.... Theory, tracing all multicellular animals to a hypothetical two-layered ancestor, stimulated both discussion and investigation,! Lyell, and artist, `` Haeckel 's publisher turned Down a proposal for a fuller list of of.