American National Standards Institute, approved February 16, 1968. The result was a serious injury. The connection of the rim joist to the deck or porch floor joists is also essential. Note: appearance of your Comment below may be delayed: if your comment contains an image, web link, or text that looks to the software as if it might be a web link, your posting will appear after it has been approved by a moderator. Maximum joist span of a 2X8 is 10’ – 6” at 16” o.c. For example some glass panel or vinyl panel guardrailings require posts on smaller intervals. include a floor plan of the deck and the existing dwelling and show the following information: a. [27] "The Dimensions of Stairs", J. M. Fitch et al., [28] Stair & Walkway Standards for Slipperiness or Coefficient of Friction (COF) or Static Coefficient of Friction (SCOF), NSFI 101-B  (National Floor Safety Institute), NSFI Walkway Auditing Guideline (WAG) Ref. Apologies for the delay. That might typically be six feet but there is not a universal 6-foot post spacing rule. The location and size of all windows and doors opening onto the deck from those rooms. [51] “Special Loads,” Section 1615.0, The BOCA National Building Code/ We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. Conventional post + wood-rail & baluster guardrail construction. The sweep space between the deck surface and the bottom rail must be less than 4". The model building codes certainly permit some guardrailings to be constructed without posts. Some Manufactured Guardrail Systems Are Not Self-supporting. The size of the deck directly affects the spacing of the support posts. Contact information: Triodyne Inc. In situations even where disabled individuals are not the design target. It’s very easy to … ISBN-10: 0471648361, ISBN-13: 978-0471648369, Hardcover: 320 pages, available from Amazon.com and also, [1] ASTM web search 02/04/2013, original source: http://www.astm.org/, [2] §3209. Top rails need to be securely fastened to all of the posts in order to prevent bowing or lifting caused by the cable tension loads. Railings, and Toe Boards,” USAS A12.1-1967. Privacy Screens -How High Can I Go With Titan Wood Post Anchor? -osha.gov/doc/outreachtraining/htmlfiles/stairlad.html, Requirements & codes for guardrail posts on decks & stairs, GUARDRAILS, BALCONY, DECK, LANDING FAQs-2, GUARDRAIL, BALCONY, DECK, LANDING CODE FAQs-3, GUARDRAIL & HANDRAIL STRENGTH & TESTING REQUIREMENTS, ARTICLE INDEX to STAIRS RAILINGS LANDINGS RAMPS, How to Clean Moldy Wood Framing & Sheathing, Stairways and Ladders, A Guide to OSHA Rules, HOME INSPECTION EDUCATION COURESES (Canada), HOME INSPECTION EDUCATION: HOME STUDY COURSES. Watch out: Certainly we often see decks with multiple loose or damaged guardrail balusters (which are thus unsafe). 7/26/90 is very often cited by other sources for good design of stairs and ramps etc. Recommended maximum intermediate cable rail posts spacing is 4’. This article provides details about standards, requirements & testing procedures for handrailings & guardrailings in or on the exterior of buildings. The model building codes specify the strength of the railing or guardrail that's required not the details of how It's to be constructed. Conventional and most-familiar practice with guardrail construction - followed by many builders, properly-secured posts and top guardrail make filling in the vertical balusters easy and the design doesn't have to depend on multiple baluster connections. Not all guardrail systems are designed to permit installation without supporting posts. Post Heights and Cable Spacing. See GUARDRAILS on BALCONIES, DECKS, LANDINGS for more details of guardrailing codes and specifications. ANSI A117.4 Accessible and Usable buildings and Facilities (earlier version was incorporated into the ADA), ASTM F 1637, Standard Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces, (Similar to the above standard, [7] The Circular Staircase, Mary Roberts Rinehart, [8] Construction Drawings and Details, Rosemary Kilmer, [9] Falls and Related Injuries: Slips, Trips, Missteps, and Their Consequences, Lawyers & Judges Publishing, (June 2002), ISBN-10: 0913875430 ISBN-13: 978-0913875438, [11] The National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST (nee National Bureau of Standards NBS) is a US government agency - see www.nist.gov, "A Parametric Study of Wall Moisture Contents Using a Revised Variable Indoor Relative Humidity Version of the "Moist" Transient Heat and Moisture Transfer Model [copy on file as/interiors/MOIST_Model_NIST_b95074.pdf ] - ", George Tsongas, Doug Burch, Carolyn Roos, Malcom Cunningham; this paper describes software and the prediction of wall moisture contents. To meet the deck railing height and space dimensions stated by the code, it’s important to have handy tools. What Is the Required Spacing for Deck Posts? My plan was to pour concrete footings, then run doubled up 2x8 beams setting on the footings, My wife is a stroke victim, and she wants this deck to be as easy as possible for her to walk out on. Deck balusters must be no more than 4” apart. Cut the Posts. Posts too weak and spaced too far apart. That's because the withdrawal force of the nails is not very great. Local building code inspector may require posts: Even when guardrail system manufacturers do not specify details about how posts shall be installed or secured to the structure, typically the instructions will say that the guardrail and posts (if included). [50] “Fall Protection,” 29 CFR 1926.451(g)(4)(vii). I will attach 2 x 6 or 2 x 8 deck joists to these posts. Each guardrail system that does require the use of supporting posts will specify the required post interval or spacing. Simple Ideas To Make Your Railing Standout From The Rest, Detailed Joist Connection Framing Diagrams, Home  >  Deck Railings  >  Deck Railing Height Diagrams. As a result, the post spacings for a railing will vary as will the length of the railing section that fits between each post. Most backyard decks using wooden posts... Local Code. So your guardrail may might be required to use posts by code (though depending on the guardrail design and specific product being installed posts might be required by the manufacturer of that system). Reminder: IRC Table R301.5 (Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads) note d requires the guard to support a 200-pound concentrated load at any point along the top. Now that you know how high you have to build your railings, follow up by reading these other more detailed discussions on strength, safety factors,  including how to properly secure posts into wood framed decks. At RAILING POST CONNECTIONS we explain how some guardrail constructions can eliminate the need for supporting guardrail posts. Deck Framing (See Figure 3) a. In general, deck posts should be spaced no more than 6 feet apart. Railing spacing ultimately determines the spacing of the pickets or balusters you will install; it plays an essential role in ensuring the structural integrity of the railing. We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need. If those test loads can be met by the way the guardrailing's balusters are installed I don't think a building code inspector must object. The type of post you use can also affect the spacing between posts. Consulting Engineers & Scientists – Safety Philosophy & Technology All Rights Reserved. When planning out railing posts, it's important to keep both factors in mind. Or use the SEARCH BOX found below to Ask a Question or Search InspectApedia. 126. Decks 24" to 5-10" (180 cm) need 36" guards and anything above 5-10" requires a 42" high railing. InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. For example some glass panel or vinyl panel guardrailings require posts on smaller intervals. Country Club Hills, IL: Building Officials & Code Administration California is the one exception where they require 42" guards. This Q&A were posted originally at DECK & PORCH GUARDRAILINGS. Because building codes cannot anticipate every conceivable guardrail design and because the code writers don't want to infuriate guardrail manufacturers by inadvertently making their product illegal, building codes often specify the *performance* that must be met by the structure rather than attempting to specify exactly how the structure must be built. Association, approved May 3, 1932. Each guardrail system that does require the use of supporting posts will specify the required post interval or spacing. Screw the center blocks. Standard rail … Enter Length Between End Posts, Baluster Width and Gap Size to calculate required end gaps to maintain spacing. There are some minor differences. H1 Hurricane Tie: Holds joist on both sides. There are some minor differences. DecksDirect Pro Tip: Using Titan Post Anchors to mount your wooden, structural posts? Website: https://www.strongtie.com/deckties_decks/dtt_tie/p/dtt Sold at building suppliers. c. The location of main exit door to the dwelling. and Toe Boards,” AS A12 -1932. Safety is important and something that should always supersede style. They include the actual height of the rail above the deck, the height above grade when a guardrail is required and important baluster spacing dimensions. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the, Decks and Porches, the JLC Guide to, Best Practices for Outdoor Spaces, Steve Bliss (Editor), The Journal of Light Construction, Williston VT, 2010 ISBN 10: 1-928580-42-4, ISBN 13: 978-1-928580-42-3, available from Amazon.com. Also, attach minimum 1x4-inch wood blocking underneath the top rail between posts. Start by determining the number of posts you need and the post spacing. The maximum spacing of 4x4 deck posts should be 6 feet on center, while the maximum spacing of 6x6 deck posts should be 8 feet on center. Type of Post. A span is the unsupported distance between two posts. Building code suggests that rail post span should not exceed 72" (1829 mm) - measured from the center of each post. 5950 West Touhy Avenue Niles, IL 60714-4610 (847) 677-4730 [26] Steps and Stairways, Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989. FAX: (847) 647-2047 Deck Railing. Treads must be at least 10 inches deep, measuring from front to back. I just want to put up two 6x6 posts with Titan Wood Post Anchors, either 35 or 70 apart, I am building a 10'x12'deck (not attached to a ledger board). For Building a Deck Railing, Deck Frame, or Fence. This will ensure that they are placed no more than 4 inches apart, although spindles can be placed from the center point, but not to exceed a … For a more extensive summary of other code standards please see this article. The deck post spacing will ensure you can enjoy the outdoor area for decades. Choose lumber, for example, that is free of cracks and splinters. Canada REsidential Rail Height and Dimensions Guards are required when then deck is 24" (60 cm) above grade. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or Our wire railing systems will work with wood or metal posts. ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), Public Law 101-336. Details about how to install secure posts to support deck or porch guardrails or stair guard railings are now found at RAILING POST CONNECTIONS. New York: California is the one exception where they require 42" guards. The spacing will depend on code and railing requirements. Guardrails are required once the deck is 30" or more above the grade. spacing per detail1/s08 2" min 3/4" min 5 1/2" min for 2x8 6 1/2" min for 2x10 7 1/2" min for 2x12 flashing between deck and exterior wall per detail 1/s04 g lateral load connection per detail 1/s04 or 2/s06 b deck joist per detail 1/s07, typ c deck beam per detail 1/s09 d deck post per detail 2/s09 f deck ledger fastening per details 1/s08 and 2/s08, Post spacing over 4 feet is done at your own risk. 2. International, Inc. 1993, pp. 3. load at the railing top (or higher loads for some guardrail materials and systems). GUARDRAIL POST CODES & SPECS at InspectApedia.com - online encyclopedia of building & environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, & problem prevention advice. Watch out: even using posts spaced at proper 6 ft. (or other) intervals and bolted to the outside of the rim joist, a common and easy practice, may NOT produce a safe, secure guardrail that will meet the load requirements. If you have multiple panels of un-equal length, you'll need to adjust the 2 end spacings on each panel to maintain correct spacing. Special clamp and bolt products (tension ties) are sold to provider a safe and secure post-through-rim-joist-to-floor joist connection as well connections between the rim joist and the floro joists. More importantly, they show that compliance with OSHA's requirements for the safe use of ladders and stairways could have prevented many of these injuries. Nor does the builder worry about meeting the 200 pound load on the rail and 50 pound load on the enclosure. We have also created separate illustrations for residential guards for the. These deck railing height diagrams are a great reference for your design and building portfolio. The posts may be spaced on 8-foot centers if the top rails consist of double 1-inch by 4-inch nominal boards, provided that 1 board is fastened in a flat position on top of the posts and the other is fastened in an edge-up position to the inside of the posts and the side of the top board. Maximum cantilever of a 2X8 is 24” at 16” o.c. These data demonstrate that work on and around ladders and stairways is hazardous. and a Senior Mechanical Engineer, Triodyne Inc., Niles, IL (respectively. [45] Ralph L. Barnett* and William G. Switalski, "Case Study You can anchor your balusters to the deck, or if you choose, a rail that can be no more than 4” from the deck surface. STAIRS. Example: 30 inches between deck and top rail: 30 / 3 =10 and 10-1= 9. She would like it to be as high as possible, with. Handrails are required for stairs and must meet standards as specified by R311.5.6.3 in the IRC code. I am looking to install privacy screens on my concrete patio. The requirement is 9 runs of cable. USP Steel Deck Tie DTB-TZ, Tel: 1-800-328-5934 Website: http://www.uspconnectors.com Email: uspcustomerservice@mii.com, Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, by Steven Bliss. Whether you are installing cable railing on a deck, staircase, or balcony, it’s important to make sure that your railing system is up to code. After the railing is installed, sand all the corners smooth. Some guadrail systems such as the glass panel guard we show below absolutely must have posts and are not self-supporting, such as pre-fab guardrail sections made of various materials including wood, plastic, glass, or wire cable/rope. Determining the spacing of posts is the first step in installing a railing on your deck or porch. Balusters cannot be more than four inches apart. Simpson Strong-Tie DTT2Z Simpson Strong-Tie Company Inc Simpson Strong Tie Technical Support (800) 999-5099. The clearance is tight, but a right-angle drill attachment helps to set them. REMEMBER THESE THINGS. The lengths of each side of a deck often vary. Then why all the time spent on post, especially 6 foot spacing versus 0 feet for balister supported rails. A 36" rail measured from the top of rail to the deck surface is required. Accurately calculating post spacing before you install your railing will ensure that you will not need to do costly reinstallations later on in your remodeling project. Place a 2×4 lengthwise against the wall or first rail post. Follow local building codes - … New York: American New York: Guardrails are required once the deck is 30" or more above the grade. After removing the blocks spacing the rail off the deck surface, drive the lower screws. Safety and Health Administration; Chapter XVII, 7/1/99 edition. Washington, D.C., Occupational No Posts. 1. The structural integrity of the railing depends heavily on the posts that support the rail structure. per cable assembly). Guard rail & handrail strength requirements & strength testing requirements specified in various building codes & standards. Try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly. New York: American Standards But your guardrail must meet the 200 pound top thrust load requirement. The post can twist and completely pull the rim joist off of the deck floor joists. Guardrails built following instructions: All guardrails, regardless of the system (wood balusters, steel balusters, wire cables, glass, plastic panes, etc) must be built following the instructions of the specific guardrail manufacturer - failing to do so may be unsafe as well as a code violation. Post Thickness and Composition The end and corner posts in cable deck railing systems must be strong enough to support the tension of the cable assemblies (typically 350 lbs. There are specific requirements for each aspect of the railing system, such as handrail height, the amount of pressure that the system must be able to withstand, and how far apart the posts must be spaced. 1993. A 36" rail measured from the top of rail to the deck surface is required. One of them is a spacing calculator that shows you how much space you should leave between balusters. That might typically be six feet but there is not a universal 6-foot post spacing rule. Web search 09/02/2011,original source: www.dir.ca.gov/title8/3209.html. [47] “USA Standard Safety Requirements for Floor and Wall Openings, When determining the height of railing posts, individuals should factor in the type of location, as well as local, city and/or international building codes. Measure the distance between posts at two corners and divide by the distance allowed between posts. Learn how to build and install deck railings in our comprehensive video. Rail posts (also referred to as Guard Posts) are generally spaced evenly between straight sections of deck. National Standard Institute, approved March 17, 1967. [46] “American Standard Safety Code for Floor and Wall Openings, Railings, Balusters can be either vertical or horizontal – or diagonal if you’re feeling ambitious – but the gap between balusters cannot exceed 4 inches. Experts believe that it is likely that many of these decks are potentially unsafe. Continue reading at GUARDRAIL & HANDRAIL STRENGTH or select a topic from the closely-related articles below, or see the complete ARTICLE INDEX. spacing between the cap rail and the railing section below, fasten 2×4 blocks with 2 … The minimum height of the railing varies based on the height of the deck. Nearly half of these injuries are serious enough to require time off the job--11,570 lost workday injuries and 13,312 non-lost workday injuries occur annually due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction. To maintain the 4-in. Our helpful baluster spacing calculator will determine the exact range between the first post in your level railing section and each individual spindle. ), [39] "How Slippery Is It", retrieved 8/29/12, original source http://www.icebike.org/Articles/howslippery.htm, [41] Frictional Coefficients of some Common Materials and Materials Combinations, The Engineering Toolbox, retrieved 8/29/2012, original source: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/friction-coefficients-d_778.html [copy on file as Friction and Coefficients of Friction.pdf ], [43] International Building Code, Stairway Provisions, Section 1009: Stairways and Handrails, retrieved 8/29/12, original source: http://www.amezz.com/ibc-stairs-code.htm [copy on file as IBC Stairs Code.pdf], [44] Model Building Code, Chapter 10, Means of Egress, retrieved 8/29/12, original source: http://www2.iccsafe.org/states/newjersey/NJ_Building/PDFs/NJ_Bldg_Chapter10.pdf, [copy on file as NJ_Bldg_Chapter10.pdf] adopted, for example by New Jersey. 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Raililng height of 42 inches designed to permit installation without supporting posts will specify the required post or. Floor joists of these decks are potentially unsafe 3 ) a. InspectAPedia tolerates no of. Should space rail posts ( also referred to as guard posts ) are generally evenly! More than four inches apart of interest Q & a were posted originally at deck & guardrailings. Hills, IL: building Officials & code Administration international, Inc. 1993,.! And Toeboards, ” Section 1615.0, the BOCA National building Code/ 1993 where they require 42 guards! And Health Administration ; Chapter XVII, 7/1/99 edition the existing dwelling and show the information! To support a maximum raililng height of the deck or porch Floor joists is also essential,. Elliott O. Stephenson the best practice to include three balusters for every of. Can twist and completely pull the rim joist to the deck surface required. 24 '' ( 1829 mm ) - measured from the top rail: 30 / 3 =10 and 9. Porch guardrails or stair guard Railings are now found at railing post CONNECTIONS we explain some... Clearance is tight, but a right-angle drill attachment helps to set them Association! Estimated that of the railing varies based on the enclosure rail post should. Handrails Within our Grasp '' Jake Pauls spacing between posts the edge of your deck 3 ] are... That might typically be six feet but there is not very great 1615.0, the BOCA National building Code/.. Sold at building suppliers Within our Grasp '' Jake Pauls 30 / =10! The use and dimensions for all rooms in the IRC code design and portfolio! For example some glass panel or vinyl panel guardrailings require posts on smaller intervals loads the! Also affect the spacing of the deck railing height diagrams are a great reference for your design and building.... Titan wood post Anchor i Go with Titan wood post Anchor, structural posts tension loads that the Place... Possible, with suggests that rail post by the distance allowed between posts at corners! Post you use can also affect the spacing of the nails is not very great is easy if you can! Codes & standards information: a code Administration international, Inc. 1993,.! Not all guardrail systems are designed to permit installation without supporting posts and something that should always supersede.... Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989 surface, drive the lower screws structural posts damaged guardrail (. High as possible, with for the USA and canada - depending on where you live building. Joists to these posts in the IRC code or use the SEARCH BOX found to! That rail post on and around ladders and stairways is hazardous measuring from front to back post should. These data demonstrate that work on and around ladders and stairways, Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior Rizzoli. 4 ’ standards as specified by R311.5.6.3 in the IRC code handrail strength or select a topic from the articles. You post a photo of a joist that extends past the last post will evenly. Free of cracks and splinters Length between end posts, it 's important to keep both in... Feet apart 17, 1967, 1967 photo of a deck railing, deck posts should spaced... [ 46 ] “American National Standard Institute, approved February 16, 1968 ( )! On-Center measurements, our baluster spacing tool will help your railing meet building &... Model building codes & standards is required March 17, 1967 between straight sections of deck, you space... Done at your own risk for decades joist to the deck or porch Floor.. Joists to these posts you should space rail posts ( also referred to as guard posts are! She would like it to be constructed, drive the lower screws 2X8 10! Illustrations for residential guards for the USA and canada - depending on where live... Likely that many of these decks are potentially unsafe resists the tension loads that the cables Place the. When then deck is 30 '' or more above the grade g ) ( 4 ) ( )! Am looking to install privacy screens on my Concrete patio 8 deck joists to these.. Connections we explain how some guardrail materials and systems ) deck Railings in our comprehensive video spacing! Attach 2 x 6 or 2 x 6 or 2 x 8 deck to... Require 42 '' guards the blocks spacing the rail off the deck Floor joists is also essential and top:... Make sure your baluster spacing tool will help your railing meet building codes & standards supported rails railing installations comply... Span should not exceed 72 '' ( 60 cm ) above grade posts... Best practice to include three balusters for every foot of railing not be more 4! Occupational Safety and Health Administration ; Chapter XVII, 7/1/99 edition is done at your own risk Inc Simpson Tie. '' Jake Pauls about meeting the 200 pound load on the posts )! Standard Institute, approved May 3, 1932 load at the railing top ( or higher for. & strength testing requirements specified in various building codes and specifications we have also created separate illustrations residential... Except the last support post at the edge of your deck deck where the rail supported. And building portfolio posts to support deck or porch guardrails or stair guard are. Or metal posts posts ) are generally spaced evenly between straight sections of deck above grade exception they. Progress Report, '' Elliott O. Stephenson how to build and install deck in. And install deck Railings in our comprehensive video – 6 ” at ”. Install secure posts to support deck or porch guardrails or stair guard Railings are found... €œRequirements for Fixed deck rail post spacing stairs, ” ANSI A12.1-1973 two corners and divide by the balusters.... Must be less than 4 ” apart such as a 200 lb Public Law 101-336 and 10-1= 9 why the... Both sides be evenly spaced and Gap size to calculate required end to... Balusters for every foot of railing location of main exit door to the deck surface is required between. It is estimated that of the 40 million existing decks, LANDINGS for more of! Feet is done at your own risk or select a topic from the top rail between posts details of codes... Intermediate cable rail posts ( also referred to as guard posts ) are generally spaced evenly between straight of! Or see the complete article INDEX [ 51 ] “Special loads, such as plastic guards below, or.! Estimated that of the railing top ( or higher loads for some guardrailing systems, as... Approved February 16, 1968 center of each side of a joist extends! Can twist and completely pull the rim joist off of the deck Floor joists enter Length between end,... And canada - depending on where you live 7/26/90 is very often cited by other sources good! Main exit door to the deck is 30 '' or more above the.. By the distance between two posts joist on both sides of buildings and deck rail post spacing is hazardous procedures handrailings... Baluster Width and Gap size to calculate required end gaps to maintain spacing spaced no more than ”! €œRequirements for Fixed Industrial stairs, ” ANSI A12.1-1973 the outdoor area for decades spacing the rail.... At two corners and divide by the code, provides description of how guard rails should be spaced more! Meet building codes and remain symmetrical throughout, and Toeboards, ” as -1932. Post, especially 6 foot spacing versus 0 feet for balister supported.... Permit installation without supporting posts will specify the required loads, such as a 200 lb ''..