He declared that ontogeny (the embryology and development of the individual) briefly, and sometimes necessarily incompletely, recapitulated, or repeated, phylogeny (the developmental history of the species or race). He accused Haeckel of "playing fast and loose with the public and with science", and failing to live up to the obligation to the truth of every serious researcher. The occupation of physician appeared less worthwhile to Haeckel after contact with suffering patients. Interestingly, though it was only on a theoretical basis, he suggested as early as 1866 that the cell nucleus was concerned with inheritance. His gastraea theory, tracing all multicellular animals to a hypothetical two-layered ancestor, stimulated both discussion and investigation. For the most important varieties of this species, which are moreover the most eminent actors in what is called "Universal History", first rose to a flourishing condition on the shores of the Mediterranean. Haeckel introduced the concept of heterochrony, the change in timing of embryonic development over the course of evolution. Richardson & Keuck 2001. "[37], In his introduction to the Nazi party ideologue Alfred Rosenberg's 1930 book, The Myth of the Twentieth Century, Peter Peel affirms that Rosenberg had indeed read Haeckel. [75] Haeckel was also an extreme German nationalist who believed strongly in the superiority of German culture. Richardson and Keuck, (Biol. At that time, no remains of human ancestors had yet been identified. Ernst Haeckel was a German biologist of the late mid 1800s who made commentary on a large range of issues, ranging from philosophy to development … [27] Haeckel supported the theory with embryo drawings that have since been shown to be oversimplified and in part inaccurate, and the theory is now considered an oversimplification of quite complicated relationships, however comparison of embryos[6] remains a powerful way to demonstrate that all animals are related. [55], Haeckel was awarded the title of Excellency by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1907[56] and the Linnean Society of London's prestigious Darwin-Wallace Medal in 1908. He also proposed the kingdom Protista[12] in 1866. [77] He was also a pacifist until the First World War, when he wrote propaganda in favor of the war. For example, at the time when Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859), Haeckel postulated that evidence of human evolution would be found in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Haeckel's notion that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny was deeply flawed, but it was at least straightforward. See for example, their Fig. Haeckel dedicated some species of jellyfish of particular beauty (such as Desmonema annasethe) to his unforgettable wife. The current consensus of anthropologists is that the direct ancestors of modern humans were African populations of Homo erectus (possibly Homo ergaster), rather than the Asian populations exemplified by Java Man and Peking Man. But in a great majority of animals, including man, this is not possible because the infinitely varied conditions of existence have led the embryonic forms themselves to be changed and to partly lose their original condition (Haeckel, 1903: pp. 1: 1–363. Haeckel retired from teaching in 1909, and in 1910 he withdrew from the Evangelical Church of Prussia. [13], In 1864, his beloved first wife, Anna Sethe, died. An effective popularizer of science, Haeckel produced numerous tree diagrams, showing evolutionary relationships between different species. Affiliations [5] Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany[6] and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny. Ernst Haeckel was born on 16 February 1834, in Potsdam (then part of the Kingdom of Prussia). In the United States, Mount Haeckel, a 13,418 ft (4,090 m) summit in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, overlooking the Evolution Basin, is named in his honour, as is another Mount Haeckel, a 2,941 m (9,649 ft) summit in New Zealand; and the asteroid 12323 Haeckel. [citation needed], He was one of the first to consider psychology as a branch of physiology. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a prominent comparative anatomist and active lecturer in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Modern scientists and science historians have varied on the value of these diagrams … He saw the social sciences as instances of "applied biology", and that phrase was picked up and used for Nazi propaganda. [12] He sold his "Villa Medusa" in Jena in 1918 to the Carl Zeiss foundation, which preserved his library. This species alone (with the exception of the Mongolian) has had an actual history; it alone has attained to that degree of civilisation which seems to raise men above the rest of nature. Over the next few days he met Charles Lyell, and visited Thomas Huxley and family at their home. Reynolds, Andrew // History of Science;Jun2008, Vol. He had long been thinking of “vital molecular movement” when, in 1876, he attempted to place heredity on a molecular basis in a work entitled Die Perigenesis der Plastidule (“The Generation of Waves in the Small Vital Particles”). ERNST HAECKEL AND THE THEORY OF THE CELL STATE: REMARKS ON THE HISTORY OF A BIO-POLITICAL METAPHOR. [26] It proposed a link between ontogeny (development of form) and phylogeny (evolutionary descent), summed up by Haeckel in the phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". It is generally called the Caucasian race, but as, among all the varieties of the species, the Caucasian branch is the least important, we prefer the much more suitable appellation proposed by Friedrich Müller, namely, that of Mediterranese. In 1857 … In 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the Domgymnasium, the cathedral high-school of Merseburg. This group lasted until 1933 and included such notable members as Wilhelm Ostwald, Georg von Arco (1869-1940), Helene Stöcker and Walter Arthur Berendsohn. He was first to postulate a “missing link” between ape and man and was proven correct when Java man was found in 1891. The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures, collected in his Kunstformen der Natur ("Art Forms of Nature"). Rather than being a strict Darwinian, Haeckel believed that the characteristics of an organism were acquired through interactions with the environment and that ontogeny reflected phylogeny. The German scientist’s lush drawings, watercolors, and sketches of lifeforms “from the highest mountaintops to the deepest ocean” were published in 59 scientific illustrations between 1860 and 1862. [citation needed], Haeckel's literary output was extensive, including many books, scientific papers, and illustrations.[61]. Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, (born Feb. 16, 1834, Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, 1919, Jena, Ger. Haeckel saw evolution as the basis for a unified explanation of all nature and the rationale of a philosophical approach that denied final causes and the teleology of the church. [11] On 17 October 1866 he arrived in London. Despite the significance to ideas of transformism, this was not really polite enough for the new popular science writing, and was a matter for medical institutions and for experts who could make their own comparisons. On 21 October he visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent. [82] This opinion was also shared by the scholarly journal, Der Biologie, which celebrated Haeckel's 100th birthday, in 1934, with several essays acclaiming him as a pioneering thinker of Nazism. Haeckel responded with angry accusations of bowing to religious prejudice, but in the second (1870) edition changed the duplicated embryo images to a single image captioned "embryo of a mammal or bird". Some scientists of the day suggested[30] Dubois' Java Man as a potential intermediate form between modern humans and the common ancestor we share with the other great apes. His Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866; “General Morphology of Organisms”) presented many of his evolutionary ideas, but the scientific community was little interested. Vol. For a time he practiced medicine; his father then agreed to his traveling to Italy, where he painted and even considered art as a career. Although Haeckel's ideas are important to the history of evolutionary theory, and although he was a competent invertebrate anatomist most famous for his work on radiolaria, many speculative concepts that he championed are now considered incorrect. [69] As a result of the "struggle for existence", it followed that the "lower" races would eventually be exterminated. It was later said that "there is evidence of sleight of hand" on both sides of the feud between Haeckel and Wilhelm His. He held that evolutionary biology had definitively proven that races were unequal in intelligence and ability, and that their lives were also of unequal value. According to our current on-line database, Ernst Haeckel has 1 student and 5 descendants. [20], Haeckel became the most famous proponent of Monism in Germany. Haeckel's publisher turned down a proposal for a "strictly scholarly and objective" second edition. Haeckel tended to speculate, and for some years, he pondered the problem of heredity. Ernst Haeckel’s Alleged Anti-Semitism and Contributions to Nazi Biology Robert J. Richards1 The University of Chicago Figure 1: Haeckel’s stem-tree of the nine human species, with their varieties; the ape-man at the source. 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